New non sedating antihistamines
Neuroleptics inhibit dopamine nerve transmission in the frontal lobes and in the limbic system—the emotion-regulating brain structures.
The term "antipsychotics" is sometimes used because these drugs are generally used to treat symptoms of paranoia, psychosis, or serious distortions in the perception of reality, such as hallucinations or delusions. The term "minor tranquilizer" (which has been replaced by the more precise terms "sedative-hypnotic" or "anxiolytic") refers to drugs used to treat conditions such as insomnia and anxiety.The typical neuroleptics are those that were marketed before 1990.The atypical or "new generation" neuroleptics work on different neurotransmitters than the older medications.Moreover, knowledge about the chemistry of this natural plant stimulated the synthesis of other similar alkaloids that were later used as major tranquilizers.The advent of neuroleptics is sometimes identified as a turning point in the practice of psychiatry because it made possible for the first time the treatment and control of mentally ill people outside an institutional setting.This term, however, arose from the inaccurate belief that the major positive action of the earliest drugs used to treat this illness was sedating and that these drugs were on a continuum with other, less powerful, antianxiety drugs.
However, these drugs are now more commonly—and more accurately—called neuroleptics or antipsychotics.
Although the various classes of CNS depressants work in different ways, ultimately it is through their ability to increase GABA activity (thereby decreasing brain activity) that they produce a drowsy or calming effect that is beneficial to those suffering from anxiety or sleep disorders.
Although a wide variety of substances can have tranquilizing effects, historically, the term "major tranquilizer" was applied to the category of drugs used to treat severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia.
As a group, tranquilizers act mostly on the brain by affecting the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Neurotransmitters are brain chemicals that facilitate communication between brain cells (neurons).
Used primarily to treat insomnia as well as a wide variety of anxiety disorders, tranquilizers are among the most commonly prescribed—and abused—psychiatric medications in the United States.